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The summer of 2007 was an active season for education cases in the United States federal court system. While the Supreme Court heard several cases related to freedom of speech and school race issues, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit heard its own case, Holton v. City of Thomasville School District, in which the court examined the City of Thomasville School District's ("the School District") ability-grouping program. The court held that the School District's program was neither intentionally discriminatory nor the result of prior de jure segregation by the district. The Eleventh Circuit's decision extends the line of cases allowing school districts great deference in the implementation and continuation of their academic programs. This includes programs that result in racially imbalanced school populations, so long as the programs are neither the remnants of past de jure segregation nor the result of present intentional discrimination.

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