In Apprendi v. New Jersey, the United States Supreme Court held, with the exception of the fact of prior criminal convictions, that any factual determination that authorizes an increased sentence beyond the statutory maximum must be proven to a jury beyond a reasonable doubt.
"Apprendi v. New Jersey: Should Any Factual Determination Authorizing An Increase in a Criminal Defendant's Sentence be Proven to a Jury Beyond a Reasonable Doubt,"
Mercer Law Review: Vol. 52
, Article 14.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.law.mercer.edu/jour_mlr/vol52/iss4/14